By Dr. Michael Cooper LaBossiere
This publication provides descriptions and examples of forty two universal casual fallacies: advert Hominem advert Hominem Tu Quoque attract the implications of a trust entice Authority attract trust entice universal perform attract Emotion attract worry entice Flattery attract Novelty entice Pity attract acceptance entice Ridicule entice Spite attract culture Begging the query Biased Generalization Burden of facts Circumstantial advert Hominem Fallacy of Composition complicated reason and impact Fallacy of department fake hindrance Gambler’s Fallacy Genetic Fallacy Guilt by way of organization Hasty Generalization Ignoring a standard reason center floor deceptive Vividness Peer strain own assault Poisoning the good submit Hoc Questionable reason pink Herring Relativist Fallacy Slippery Slope unique Pleading highlight Straw guy Wrongs Make a correct
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Extra resources for 42 Fallacies
This is especially clear in particularly blatant cases: “X is true. ” Some cases of question begging are fairly blatant, while others can be extremely subtle. ” Example #3: “The belief in God is universal. ” Interviewer: “Good. ” Bill: “Certainly. ” Biased Generalization Also Known as: Biased Statistics, Loaded Sample, Prejudiced Statistics, Prejudiced Sample, Loaded Statistics, Biased Induction, Biased Generalization Description: This fallacy is committed when a person draws a conclusion about a population based on a sample that is biased or prejudiced in some manner.
3) Therefore people of type Z should be treated in manner X, too. This argument rests heavily on the principle of relevant difference. On this principle two people, A and B, can only be treated differently if and only if there is a relevant difference between them. For example, it would be fine for me to give a better grade to A than B if A did better work than B. However, it would be wrong of me to give A a better grade than B simply because A has red hair and B has blonde hair. There might be some cases in which the fact that most people accept X as moral entails that X is moral.
In the Appeal to Pity, it is the feelings of pity or sympathy that are substituted for evidence. It must be noted that there are cases in which claims that actually serve as evidence also evoke a feeling of pity. In such cases, the feeling of pity is still not evidence. ” Bill: “I know. ” Bill: “I was hit by a truck on the way to the midterm. ” Professor: “I’m sorry about the leg, Bill. ” The above example does not involve a fallacy. While the professor does feel sorry for Bill, she is justified in accepting Bill’s claim that he deserves a makeup.
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