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By M. Şükrü Hanioğlu

On the flip of the 19th century, the Ottoman Empire straddled 3 continents and encompassed remarkable ethnic and cultural range one of the predicted thirty million humans residing inside its borders. It was once probably the main cosmopolitan nation within the world--and very likely the main risky. a short historical past of the overdue Ottoman Empire now offers students and common readers a concise background of the overdue empire among 1789 and 1918, turbulent years marked through remarkable social swap. relocating previous general remedies of the topic, M. Skr Hanioglu emphasizes extensive ancient traits and approaches greater than unmarried occasions. He examines the imperial fight to centralize amid strong competition from neighborhood rulers, nationalist and different teams, and international powers. He seems heavily on the socioeconomic adjustments this fight wrought and addresses the Ottoman reaction to the demanding situations of modernity. Hanioglu indicates how this background is not just necessary to comprehending glossy Turkey, yet is fundamental to the histories of Europe and the area. He brings Ottoman society marvelously to existence in all its facets--cultural, diplomatic, highbrow, literary, army, and political--and he mines imperial records and different records from the interval to explain it because it truly used to be, no longer because it has been portrayed in postimperial nationalist narratives. a quick background of the past due Ottoman Empire is a must-read for an individual looking to comprehend the legacy left during this empire's ruins--a legacy the area nonetheless grapples with this day.

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24 pieces of clothing (six furs, ornamented shirts, ornamented robes, dustcoats, an ornamented drawer band, a scarf, pieces of wool, and handkerchiefs) 13 personal items (pieces of gold, a gold belt, gold bracelets, gold jewelry ornamented with diamonds, pearls, and emeralds, jewels, a small towel, ornamented saddle bags) 9 household items (six wool cushions, one big cushion, a mat, and a quilt) 4 pieces of hardware (a copper tray, a ritual ablution bowl, a ewer, and a copper food dish) Summary Estate Inventories from Hicrî 1215 (1800–1801) 1.

Later nationalist reconstructions turned such thinkers into heroic popular leaders and founders of nation-states. 59 At the time, such recognition would have seemed absurd. 57 Mustafa Cezar, Osmanlı Tarihinde Levendler (Istanbul: Güzel Sanatlar Akademisi Yayınları, 1965), pp. 238ff. 58 Yücel Özkaya, Osmanlı İmparatorluğunda Dağlı İsyanları, 1791–1808 (Ankara: A. Ü. Dil ve Tarih-Coğrafya Fakültesi Yayınları, 1983), pp. 20ff. asp. indd 26 8/23/2007 8:16:00 PM At the Turn of the Nineteenth Century 27 Material Culture In a vast area encompassing myriad peoples, traditions, climates, population densities, and economic conditions, material culture was far from uniform.

Thus an ethnic Albanian, for example, could belong to the Muslim, Greek Orthodox, or Roman Catholic community depending on religious affiliation. In certain cases—as in the Muslim areas of Bosnia—religion fused with ethnicity to produce identity. But no, ethnic consciousness comparable to modern nationalism existed to an appreciable degree within any of the communities of the empire. In any event, the religious order of society was to crumble over the course of the nineteenth century in the face of the rise of ethnic nationalism.

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