By Andrew McGregor
Egypt has one of many oldest civilizations and proudest nationwide histories on the earth, yet such a lot army histories deal with it as an insignificant battleground for different nice imperial powers similar to the Ottoman Empire, the French, and the British. In a full of life and stirring narrative, this paintings tells the untold tale of the Egyptian event. It appears on the lives of Egyptian infantrymen struggling with at domestic and in another country, and indicates the jobs these infantrymen and their leaders have performed in Middle-Eastern and global historical past for 500 years—especially within the convulsions that experience reworked the Muslim global in past times centuries.Beginning with an outline of Egypt's historical and medieval historical past, the publication then explores Ottoman army rule, explaining how a tiny Turkish-speaking minority maintained absolute strength by means of retaining army wisdom out of the clutch of local Egyptians. Readers will see how Napoleon's failed Egyptian crusade of 1798 brought the country to Europe yet, extra very important, introduced smooth Western impacts to Egypt. throughout the nineteenth century, new fingers and strategies and the emerging strength of nationalism reworked Egypt because the empire of the Ottoman Turks slowly decayed. Independence was once thwarted through the British, who took over the rustic within the Eighteen Eighties to safe hyperlinks to India. but the British lead the way for independence, retraining and strengthening the Egyptian army to make it the most powerful and such a lot nationalist strength within the kingdom. ultimately, McGregor's last chapters examine Arab nationalism, and on the Egyptian military within the wars of the overdue twentieth century.
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Extra info for A Military History of Modern Egypt: From the Ottoman Conquest to the Ramadan War
The Mamluks replied to Salim’s terms with a grave insult by executing the envoys. Now determined to eliminate the Mamluks, Salim arrived outside Cairo in only 13 days. Some Mamluks saw which way the wind was blowing and sneaked off to Salim’s camp, where they eagerly divulged the defenses of the Egyptian capital. A formidable array of stake-lined ditches covered by artillery was built at Radiniyya on the approach to Cairo. Heavy guns collected from various places in Egypt were placed behind stone walls.
Murad Bey learned nothing from the Battle of al-Rahmaniya and appears to have decided that more aggressive cavalry attacks were the key to victory over the French squares. The French held their fire until the last moment, so that their flaming musket wads set the billowing drapery of the Mamluks alight as the concentrated musket fire and grapeshot ripped through their ranks. Displaying incredible courage but no tactical sense, the Mamluks bore down on the squares for a full hour, the most ferocious of their numbers smashing their way through the deep ranks of Frenchmen only to find themselves trapped and bayoneted or beaten to death by troops inside the square (firing within a square was not recommended).
As for Napoleon, he had already decided to leave Egypt for France, but not before berating the Muslim leaders of Cairo for doubting his sincerity as a Muslim and his deep commitment to Egypt. Shortly after his victory at Abukir he was gone, secretly embarking on a ship to France on August 22, 1799. His abandoned army was left in the capable hands of General Kleber, who negotiated a French withdrawal with the Ottoman grand vizier at al-Arish on January 24, 1800. Though both parties were pleased with the deal, it depended upon the availability of British ships to transport the French army back to France.