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By Aeschylus

Aeschylus' Persae, first produced in 472 BC, is the oldest surviving Greek tragedy. it's also the single extant Greek tragedy that bargains, no longer with a mythological topic, yet with an occasion of contemporary background, the Greek defeat of the Persians at Salamis in 480 BC. not like Aeschylus' different surviving performs, it's it seems that now not a part of a attached trilogy. during this new version A. F. Garvie encourages the reader to evaluate the Persae by itself phrases as a drama. it isn't a patriotic occasion, or a play with a political manifesto, yet a real tragedy, which, faraway from featuring an easy ethical of hybris punished via the gods, poses questions touching on human anguish to which there aren't any effortless solutions. In his advent Garvie defends the play's constitution opposed to its critics, and considers its sort, the potential for thematic hyperlinks among it and the opposite performs offered through Aeschylus at the comparable get together, its staging, and the nation of the transmitted textual content. The observation develops in larger aspect a few of the conclusions of the advent.

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Extra info for Aeschylus: Persae

Example text

Py. 55–6), ‘there is a limit to human felicity beyond which a man might not attempt to go; to do so is an act of hybris’; and (106) ‘having mortal thoughts means knowing what our limitations as mortals are’. This may be all very well in principle, but not very helpful in practice; the knowledge of these limitations may be impossible to determine. How could Xerxes know that as a human being he was not allowed to build a bridge? As with the phthonos concept, this form of hybris, if that is what we are to call it, can be detected only in retrospect.

G. ). Petrounias includes in his survey recurring themes which, strictly speaking, do not involve similes or metaphors. Where they are marked by echoes of language or vocabulary, they may perform a similar function to that of imagery in helping to establish connections between different scenes. It is often impossible to be sure that such echoes were intended by the playwright, or that they would be picked up by all, or any, members of the audience. They are, however, undeniably present in the text, and it is not unreasonable to assume that Aeschylus knew what he was doing.

As I have suggested above, there are better explanations for Atossa’s silence on the entrance of the Messenger, and for her disappearance before the arrival of Xerxes. 76 In Persae no conflict or confrontation between enemies is presented on the stage. The conflict between Persia and Greece took place before the play begins. Instead of conflict Aeschylus presents a contrast between the two Persian kings, not enemies but father and son. In Septem there is a major conflict between Eteocles and Polyneices in the course of the play itself, but it happens off-stage, and, like the conflict in Persae, has to be reported to the audience.

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