By Shirley D. Sullivan
Sullivan makes a speciality of 8 key mental phrases - phr n, thumos, kardia, kear, tor, nous, prapides, and psych - that seem often in historical Greek texts yet that have a variety of attainable meanings. amassing circumstances from The Persians, Seven opposed to Thebes, Suppliants, Agamemnon, Choephoroi, and Eumenides (instances from Prometheus sure, whose authorship is in query, are taken care of in notes and an appendix), Sullivan first examines every one psychic time period individually. She then discusses circumstances of the phrases in every one play, analyzing the that means of the psychic time period within the context of the play during which it seems that and supplying information on Aeschylus' utilization. This publication sheds gentle at the wealthy and infrequently problematic means within which Aeschylus makes use of mental terminology and is a wonderful reference for classicists, psychologists, philosophers, and students of comparative literature.
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Additional resources for Aeschylus' Use of Psychological Terminology: Traditional and New
Aeschylus echoes these two examples in particular in using the verb i)u,vco6ea), "to sing a hymn," with thumos. " Again we meet two traditional associations: courage and hope. 55 Tharsos is found in thumos once (Od. 320) and associated with it twice (//. 395). In Homer thumos frequently "hopes" ( ),56 but not in the poets who follow him. Aeschylus combines these two ideas in a new way. " The murder of Iphigenia has removed cause for hope or expectation that all can be well. The situation in this family calls for the Erinys.
Instead, they experience distress involving four psychic entities. Their kardia has "fear" before it; phren has no "courage" to dispel this fear. " Kardia is "prophetic"; kear circles in "eddies" that likewise seem prophetic. A "song prophesies" in the Chorus (979), which perhaps may be the "hymn" that thumos sings (992). Kardia would "sing" if it could (1029). In these various functions, therefore, the psychic entities seem to be similar. 66 Both phren and thumos lack "courage" (tharsos), but they differ in regard to it.
Agamemnon, in contrast, resolving upon an unholy course of action, uses his phren "to decide upon ( ) the alldaring" deed, the murder of his daughter. AG. 983, 996, 1033 Because the Third Stasimon of the Agamemnon reveals so much about Aeschylus' use of psychic terms, I treat it here as an exemplary case. 37 The Stasimon describes the response of the Chorus after Agamemnon and Clytemnestra have entered the palace. They are greatly disturbed inwardly, referring to ways in which their psychic entities are behaving: Why does this fear, standing before my prophetic ( ) kardia, fly persistently and, unbidden, not hired, my song prophesies, and why does confident courage ( ) not sit on the dear throne ( ) of my phren to dispel fear like dreams hard to judge?
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