By Mir Bahmanyar
Following the Soviet invasion in 1979, the Mujahideen defenders of Afghanistan constructed and strengthened many usual cave structures to take advantage of as provide bases and shielding positions. The Taliban and Al Qaeda additional built those positions through the Nineties. Following the occasions of September eleven, 2001, those cave platforms have once again come to prominence and websites similar to Tora Bora ("Black Dust," a chain of person caves) and Zhawar Kili (a huge advanced in japanese Afghanistan) have featured in information headlines world wide. This identify presents a close research and visible documentation of those caves and underground structures. It additionally discusses the Coalition's tactical method of dislodging the enemy from those fortified positions.
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Extra info for Afghanistan Cave Complexes 1979-2004
23-4). The fourth ASEAN summit of 1992 also made changes to the function of the ASEAN secretariat. First, the Secretary-General became such for ASEAN as a whole and not merely the secretariat itself. Secondly, the secretariat was made properly professional by the introduction of ‘open and competitive recruitment’. Finally, the Secretary-General would be able to ‘initiate policies for the consideration of concerned ASEAN bodies’ (ABAD JNR, 2003, p. 34). The early 1990s were also significant for the beginning of the rapprochement with Indochina that would be fully effected by the end of the decade.
It is significant that, despite all the fluctuations of fortune within the individual states over almost forty years ASEAN has not only been a constant, but has increased in membership as well as developed institutionally. Writing in 1992 S. Rajaratnam stated: …creating and managing within a brief period of only 25 years, an ASEAN community of…economically and industrially underdeveloped peoples who had no experience of administering a modern, complex multi-racial regional organization verges…on the miraculous (RAJARATNAM, 1992, p.
With effectively falling international trading costs, the size of markets will increase and so will the optimum plant size of firms which in turn suggests national or international consolidation through mergers and acquisitions. Thus, FDI in telecommunications will grow. At the same time, there will be incentives for more intensive innovation efforts so that one may anticipate a higher rate of product or process innovations. 1 ICT Expansion, Trade, FDI and Growth The expansion of information and communication technology (ICT) in the 1990s raised new challenges for OECD countries and Newly Industrializing Countries.