By Ronald C. Davidson
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Extra resources for An introduction to the physics of nonneutral plasmas
These few experiments show the necessity of better appreciating the stress states of angle-ply laminates [±θ]s with θ lower than 45°, the failure mode of these composites is by inter-ply delamination initiated by the ‘edge effect’. If we consider laminate theory, the generalized constitutive law sets relations between the generalized efforts (forces and couples) and in-plane strains and curvatures by In the case of a symmetrical stacking sequence, the coupling rigidities between membrane and bending actions are zero.
In the latter case the concept of defect uniformity has to be considered region by region, assuming a relatively slow variation of damage between them. 9. Volume element representative of transverse cracking. The cracked ply cannot be considered other than included in a laminate. If it is not included in a laminate it will be completely fractured by the first crack, whereas in a laminated structure it continues to carry load away from the crack site. As in the case of [0m, 90n, 0m] composites the cracks are exclusively contained in the 90° plies and their distribution can evolve up to the saturated state.
Stress field along the fibres close to rupture. stress decreases with an increasing length of the RVE and the average value and the standard deviation of the macroscopic fracture stresses remain nearly constant when a cluster of about 20 fibres is broken. An increase of the applied load initially causes diffuse damage corresponding to the fracture at the weakest points on fibres, increasing as the controlling defects become less important. At the same time, other defects initiate failure by inducing stress concentrations in the vicinity of the already broken elements.
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